# Learning LaTeX and the result compared to Word

LaTeX is a high quality typesetting system. It is open source and more important it is Free Software. This past weekend I decided to learn some LaTeX as it has been an interest in the back of my mind for some time. At first I was hesitant because LaTeX was made for Mathematical and Scientific papers, which I don’t write. The impetus for Donald Knuth, the author of the underlying language (TeX), was that there weren’t good tools for the documentation and display of Mathematical formulas. However, my concern was misguided. LaTeX can make any document look beautiful, and it can be used for any kind of article, book, or even a resume. What sets it apart from WYSIWYG editors, like Microsoft Word, is the sheer typographical quality of the resulting documents you can produce. LaTeX algorithms under the hood calculate everything from page line height to word and letter spacing. They can be adjusted as you like and many packages exist that make the process easier.

My mother has produced a book recently using Microsoft Word, and it was no easy task. The index-making progress is difficult, headers inexplicably stop showing up correctly, page numbers stop respecting section boundaries, and blank pages pop up everywhere in the PDF result. Furthermore, the WYSIWYG nature of Word encourages you to manually edit spacing issues with the wrong tools, and if you are picking up from where someone else left off, then good luck to you reformatting everything. Even after reformatting, if text is changed and pages shift, you have to redo your work. I wanted to convince myself and my mother that the book can be produced with LaTeX in one or two nights, and look better than its Word counterpart. I was able to do it in just one afternoon.

First I found that LaTeX supports a book document type. You declare it in the first line of your document. However, after adding more pieces to the puzzle, I learned about the Koma-Script package which provides a drop-in replacement for the book (and article & report) class, packed with some additional goodies. There is also the memoir class, which was an interesting alternative. I loaded its book class with the scrbook class.

\documentclass[12pt,letterpaper]{scrbook}

I found that I did not even need to install anything as it was already installed in the LaTeX package bundled with Ubuntu. I haven’t tried it yet, but I’ve read that MiKTeX is a good package to get started with LaTeX on Windows and it makes it easy to use this and other useful packages. I plan on getting my mother to try MiKTeX once I show her my LaTeX version of the book (which undeniably looks better than the Word version). However, for this proof of concept, I didn’t use any editors specially designed for LaTeX, as I of course was working in EMACS. EMACS has a LaTeX mode with useful key bindings and syntax highlighting. I immediately got started copying all the chapter titles like this:

\chapter[Optional short name for the TOC]{My Very Long Chapter Name Here}

I did not have to wrap pagraphs in any tags as you simply skip a line to indicate that it is a new paragraph.

This book had many quotations and blockquotes, and many of them were formatted improprly in Word. Word doesn’t make that easy. I didn’t have to worry about any of that, as in LaTeX I am only semantically tagging them, not styling them. Styling comes later, when you’re done tagging, though I found that even the default styling was impressive. Here’s what the markup looks like:

\begin{quote}
All that is gold does not glitter,
Not all those who wander are lost;
The old that is strong does not wither,
Deep roots are not reached by the frost.

From the ashes a fire shall be woken,
A light from the shadows shall spring;
Renewed shall be blade that was broken,
The crownless again shall be king.
\end{quote}


Koma-Script’s scrbook gives useful variations on subsections, like addsec* and minisec, for example. The * is a modifier that keeps it from appearing in the Table of Contents (TOC).

\minisec*{My mini subsection name}
Blah Blah


Creating the index was refreshingly sane. I simply went into the points of interset in the text and dropped \index{key} tags and I was done. Once I did that, text can be added or removed and pages can shift, but we have no additional work to do as it’s all recalculated for you. All pages with the same key get pointed to in the index under the same entry. Sequential page ranges get smartly hyphenated. Footnotes were just as easy. For this book, footnotes were not used, but instead, endnotes. I googled for endnotes and found that there was a package for it already. Once again, I did not even have to download it, as it was already included in my LaTeX package. I wanted the endnote numerbers to reset every chapter, as it is in the Word version, and there’s a package for that too.

\usepackage{endnotes,chngcntr}
\counterwithin*{endnote}{chapter}  % Reset endnote numbering every new chapter

This is a brief overview of some of the tags that I used that I hope highlight how easy this was to do. Then I generated the document directly to PDF. Without even thinking about styling yet, the document that was produced was a typograhically stunning work. With a couple of easy tweaks, I purposely made it look closer to the Word document for comparison purposes, to highlight the superiority of the type produced by LaTeX. Unfortunately I can’t produce the “final” proof of concept here, as it is an entire book and I don’t hold rights to it. It would not be entirely fair for me to omit that there is a learning curve with LaTeX, of course. However, I hope that this helps anyone just starting or curious about learning LaTeX.